I. Standard on a Zero Tolerance Approach to Corruption in PPP Procurement
Critical to attract foreign direct investment will be the presence of enabling environments that are open and transparent in host countries. Accordingly, the first standard to be developed will be Zero-Tolerance Approach to Corruption in ‘People-First’ PPP Procurement.
II. Implementing principles on Zero-Tolerance to corruption in PPPs
In order to give incentives to government agencies to comply with the abovementioned guidelines, it is proposed to award PPP units with ‘certificates’ after they have been successfully evaluated. The scheme, its feasibility, its operation and management, will be examined by a Project Team. The team will also make its recommendations based on a thorough consultation with PPP units and private investors on their interest in participating in such a scheme.
III. PPPs in Health Policy
The challenge for PPPs in the health sector is ensuring that projects are linked to the overall health-care policy – achieving overall targets such as universal access while taking into account institutional and financial requirements. This Team will set out a template of a health-care policy in which PPPs will play a significant role – thereby helping governments to develop the essential framework conditions of their PPP programmes.
IV. PPPs in Transport Sector - Airports
Providing modern infrastructures and efficient airport services is crucial for growth and economic development. Given the high cost of infrastructure construction and maintenance, airports are bound to remain one of the most common spheres for PPPs across the globe.
V. PPPs in Transport Sector – Railways
It is generally recognised that transport by rail is an important element in encouraging economic growth and development. Improved rail links can facilitate cross-border traffic and ease bottlenecks in established network corridors. They can also present a competitive alternative to long-distance transport by road or air. At the same time, transport by rail is usually more energy-efficient than other modes of transport, and investment in rail schemes is therefore a key component of low-carbon transport strategy.
In recent years there has been an increase in private-sector participation in the creation and enhancement of railway infrastructure through the use of public-private partnerships. This trend is likely to continue, although experience has shown that there are significant obstacles to be overcome for the successful implementation of rail schemes in this way.
VI. PPPs in Transport Sector - Roads
Providing modern infrastructures and efficient Roads services is crucially important to growth and economic development. Given the high cost of infrastructure construction and maintenance, roads are bound to remain one of the most common spheres for PPPs across the globe.
VII. PPPs on Water and Sanitation
Universal access to safe and adequate water supply and sanitation has been recognized as a human right and it needs organized efforts from all components of the society to be achieved. Nowadays there is a renewed interest of governments in using Public-Private Partnerships as one of the tools to overcome the absence of or deficiencies in water supply and sanitation. PPPs can provide the financing, technology and know-how transfer and delivery mechanisms to improve the performance and quality of water and wastewater services. To this extent, PPPs are a tool that can be used to achieve the prospective Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 6) on clean water and sanitation.
VIII. PPPs on Renewable Energy
In concert with the Sustainable Energy for All initiative, UN Member States are fast adopting energy policies and laws to encourage use of renewable energy sources, and they are looking to different financing, legal and commercial frameworks to leverage private capital and expertise to support the deployment of these renewable energy sources. Against this background, there has been a growing interest in the role the private sector could play in renewable energy generation, in particular through the promotion of PPPs. The UNECE International PPP Centre of Excellence (ICoE), in line with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and the post-2015 Development Agenda, is initiating the development of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) standards in the renewable energy sector.
IX. PPPs on Sustainable PPP Procurement
PPPs have a potential to contribute to more than a half of the soon-in-force Sustainable Development Goals by increasing and improving access for all to a wide range of public services, such as water and sanitation, health, education, sustainable energy and transport. However, in spite of the attractiveness of the PPP model for more and more governments, significant gaps still remain between identifying desirable projects, turning them into realizable ones through PPPs and then their successful implementation. Unlike traditional procurement models used by governments, PPP models are more complex; they stimulate sharing of risks and responsibilities between the public and private sectors, and include long contract periods and create long-term obligations. The tendering/competitive phase is of the utmost importance as it finally brings public and private sectors together, but all important groundwork should be already thoroughly undertaken by the governments prior to the start of the procurement process, which requires a clear and coherent procurement strategy.